some study-guide questions

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some study-guide questions

Post  jjna on Tue Feb 26, 2008 3:29 am

Hi Smile

I couldn't answer some study-guide questions.


From the Nervous System study-guide,

#21 Describe the specific properties of the neurotransmitters acetycholine and biogenic amines.
--> well, the table in the book shows the functions and sites but I was not sure of the properties..

#22 Identify and describe the functions of the four amino acids and several neuropeptides that work as neurotransmitters.
--> the book doesn't have four amino acids.. and is excitatory or inhibitory enough for the functions? or do we need to know them more in detail?

#25 Describe the specific functions of the reticular system.
--> that's talking about the reticular formation? is regulating arousal and sleep enough? or in greater detail?

#26 Explain the possible role of long-term potentiation in memory storage and learning in the vertebrate brain.
--> well, I understand the mechanism of long-term potentiation but the role I do not get..


and from the Circulation and Gas Exchange study-guide,

#7 Describe the origin and pathway of the action potential (cardiac impulse) in the normal human heart.
--> is it talking about the cardiac cycle? ...

#8 Explain how the pace of the SA node can be modulated by nerves, hormones, body temperature, and exercise.

#13 Expain how blood returens to the heart even though it must sometimes travel from the lower extremities against gravity.
--> is it because of the blood pressure that is pushing the blood in one way? (how much detail do we have to know?)


I know this is a lot..
and I know it's last minute-
Sorry and Thank you so much !!!

jjna

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Re: some study-guide questions

Post  jeanniexong on Tue Feb 26, 2008 5:09 am

#7 Describe the origin and pathway of the action potential (cardiac impulse) in the normal human heart.
I think it means the cardiac impulse...starts at SA (aka pacemaker), impulse passes through the AV node, impulse goes to the apex of the heart and then its spread out from the Purkinje fibers. Fig 42.8

#8 Explain how the pace of the SA node can be modulated by nerves, hormones, body temperature, and exercise.
"two sets of nerves affect heart rate: one set speeds up the pacemaker and the other slows it down."
hormones like epinephrine induces the fight or flight
the warmer your body temperature the faster your heart beats. "1 degree celcius raises the heart rate by 10 beats/min"
when you exercise, you need more oxygen to your body for cellular respiration so your heart beats faster to supply more oxygen.

#13 Expain how blood returens to the heart even though it must sometimes travel from the lower extremities against gravity.
Blood goes back to the heart because of not only of the help of the semi-lunar valves but also from skeletal muscles. I don't think you have to know the details of how blood returns to the heart against gravity because even the book doesnt go into too much detail. Probably just know what helps push the blood up against gravity (semi lunar valves and muscle)

Oh my gad I still have more studying... affraid

jeanniexong

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Re: some study-guide questions

Post  TA Sean on Tue Feb 26, 2008 5:20 am

Wowzer, I'll try and tackle all this. Shocked Hopefully it'll give you some guidance

21:Properties I would take in to account would be if the NT is EPSP or IPSP, where used, type of receptor, etc

22: AAs that double as NTs are glutamate, glycine, and aspartate (those are ones you're most likely familiar with) and GABA is also an AA NT. Like the above, know EPSP/IPSP and where they are active.

read the two pages on this stuff 1024-1025

25: Reticular system does function in arousal/sleep. main location is the brainstem.

26: The role of LTP is to provide neurons with greater sensitivity to a stimulus. That being said, that is a theory of how we learn, we stimulate a pathway and strengthen the synapse and thereby for future use we can more easily recall that info/know that info because the synapse is more sensitive and will more easily send an AP. Also, different synapses can be associated together to make LTP, hence smells and and such can be associated with a memory/moment in time through the process of LTP.

7: Yes, go over the cycle and how the heart beat is controlled

8: The SA node is the pacemaker, certain physiological situations will alter the heart beat/activity of the SA node. hormones/nerves and temperature and exercise all have an effect on the heart to increaes and decrease its rate. Your book has the details on this and the antagonistic mechanism of the aforementioned processes.

Blood can return to the heart by skeletal muscle movement pumping thru the veins. veins have little valves to prevent back flow, but this mechanism allows blood to get back to the heart.

Hope this helps, go back in the book on the extra details and you'll find what you need

TA Sean

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